The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is a design study for a post-LHC particle accelerator within the 21st century.

Expanding our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature requires the energy frontier to be pushed further. Reaching this goal within the 21st century in an economically sustainable and energy efficient way calls for a large circular collider.













The Future Circular Collider study (FCC) explores the feasibility of several particle collider scenarios with the aim of significantly expanding the current energy and luminosity frontiers.


To reach this goal within the 21st century in an reliable, sustainable and efficient way, a large circular collider is needed.

The FCC study is the core of a globally coordinated strategy of actions designed to converge towards a single vision. It includes the development of physics cases, concepts for detectors, and particle accelerator scenarios. The study also comprises the description of infrastructures, cost and reliability studies, as well as the preparation of a global collaboration with appropriate governance structures.

By the end of 2018, the FCC collaboration will deliver a conceptual design report, together with preliminary cost estimates and feasibility assessments.

The conceptual design report and an active R&D portfolio of new technologies developed in collaboration with leading research institutes and industries will lay the foundations for the implementation of a future circular collider.


WHY NOW



The Large Hadron Collider at CERN with its High Luminosity upgrade is the world's primary instrument for exploring the energy frontier until 2035.
This defines the time window for preparing a post-LHC high energy physics research infrastructure.





LEP and LHC have shown that a time frame of approximately 20 years is appropriate for the design, construction and operation of large research infrastructures.




This significant lead time calls for a coordinated effort. The goal is to ensure the seamless continuation of the world's particle physics programme after the LHC era.




PHYSICS


The discovery of the Higgs boson was a milestone in the long-standing effort to complete the Standard Model of Particle Physics.

This theory describes the laws governing most of the known universe.

Yet the Standard Model cannot explain several observations, such as:







The FCC, with its high precision and high energy reach, will extend well beyond the LHC the search of new particles and interactions, that could hold the key to answer these questions and understand unexplained.

The precision study of the properties of the Higgs particle remains a keystone of the experimental programme at the LHC and beyond for a long time. This is a well-defined challenge, which provides a set of clear benchmarks to assess the value of a future facility, and to compare alternative proposals with each other.

The FCC study explores the physics cases for different collider scenarios in a coordinated way that embraces discovery and precision physics.

The study includes experiment and detector concept studies to allow new physics to be explored. Detector technologies will be based on experiment concepts, the projected collider performances and the physics cases.

Creativity and innovation are needed to develop the physics case, meet the required accelerator parameters and realise unprecedented experiments.

ACCELERATORS




The FCC study develops three concepts for colliders

Hadron-hadron Collider


The great potential of high-energy hadron colliders to discover new particles and new phenomena has been demonstrated in the past decades following the rapid development of accelerator technology. The last building blocks of the Standard Model have been directly observed by experiments at previous hadron colliders (SppS, Tevatron, and LHC).

A future 100 TeV hadron collider (protons and heavy-ions) will have an energy seven times that of the LHC, a step equal to the one that took us from the Tevatron to the LHC. Such a collider will give access to the smallest scales and the most energetic phenomena in nature.

Billions of Higgs bosons and top quarks will be produced, creating new opportunities for the study of rare decays and flavour physics. A future hadron-hadron collider will allow the study of Higgs and gauge boson interactions to be extended to energies well above the TeV scale, exposing in detail the mechanism underlying the breaking of electroweak symmetry.


Lepton-lepton Collider


The second branch of the FCC design study (FCC-ee) is a high-luminosity, high-precision lepton (e+ e-) collider located in the same tunnel as a possible precursor to the hadron collider, and complementary to it.

An electron-positron (e+ - e-) collider will perform high-precision studies of the Higgs boson and other known particles. Delivering collision energies between 90 and 350 GeV and high luminosities it will offer unique sensitivity to possible new phenomena at energies of tens of TeV.

A future lepton machine would bring the comparison between theory and experiment to a completely new level allowing for profound investigations of the electroweak symmetry breaking, and begin a broad search for new physics over several orders of magnitude in energy.


Hadron-lepton Collider


The study for a hadron-lepton collider aims to bring the physics of deep inelastic electron-proton scattering to a new horizon.

Lepton-nucleus scattering has made seminal contributions such as the discovery of quarks, the disambiguation of the weak neutral current couplings and the determination at HERA of high quark and gluon densities in protons.

A hadron-lepton collider could be the finest microscope for studying quark-gluon interactions and possible further substructure of matter in the world.

This programme, accompanied by unprecedented measurements of strong and electroweak interaction phenomena, the hadron-electron collider is a unique complement to the exploration of nature at high energies within the FCC complex.


TECHNOLOGIES




Technologically, the FCC design enters in a completely new region. The realisation of such machines relies on leapfrog advancements of key enabling technologies.



The foundations for these advancements are being laid in focused R&D programmes:


  • A 16 Tesla high-field accelerator magnet and related superconductor research.

  • An efficient 100 MW radiofrequency acceleration system and the associated power conversion systems.

  • A highly efficient large-scale cryogenics infrastructure and the accompanying refrigeration systems.


  • Numerous other technologies are needed for reliable, sustainable and efficient operation.


    Technology R&D relies on interdisciplinary synergies, taking into account the experience from past and present accelerator projects.

    The effective interplay of different science and technology domains-accelerator physics, high-field magnets, cryogenics, vacuum, civil engineering, material science, superconductors, to name but a few. This integral approach that brings together experts from different fields is the key to success.

    The extensive R&D programme in these areas presents a number of opportunities for universities, research institutes, and the industry.

Physics



Accelerators

Experiments & Detectors

Implementation



Infrastructures


Cost/Value Optimization

COLLABORATION




The international FCC collaboration, hosted by CERN, brings, as of April 2016, more than 73 institutes from around the globe.



It is open to universities, laboratories and research centres of scientific excellence, as well as to high-tech companies. This set up forms the core of a globally coordinated strategy of actions designed to converge towards a single vision.


The FCC study prepares the ground for geographically well-balanced contributions, leveraging the competences of world experts in the numerous areas concerned. It also ensures that the entire worldwide scientific community is involved from the very start of the endeavour.

The FCC study aims to form an international platform for the realization of a next-generation, frontier particle physics research infrastructure, leveraging existing assets and available experience.



SOCIETY & INDUSTRY




The past has shown that pushing back technology and engineering frontiers in the area of high-energy particle physics and collider design generates significant benefits for our society.


Industry

The FCC Study integrates tightly with high-tech industries that has developed in Europe, partly due to previous efforts in fundamental research. A specific focus of the study is to act as an innovation catalyser for large and medium sized high-tech companies, leading to products and services that emerge from particle accelerator R&D. Strong emphasis is given on superconductivity, novel materials and processing techniques, modelling and simulation tools. Further areas will be included as the study progresses with the preparation of a Conceptual Design Report.

The study is open to well established companies in Big Science projects and to small and mid-size partners, which are vectors of emerging technologies.


Environment

CERN's members are committed to ensuring the best possible protection of the environment. To achieve this goal, environmental requirements and guidelines established by the Organization's host states, European Directives, international standards and best practices are applied across all activities including the concept developments of future infrastructures.

The FCC study takes into account the ecological and financial implications of energy consumption and considers energy management particularly important. The FCC collaboration strives to find ways to make a future collider efficient and to develop a sustainable operation scenario. Several strategies are considered: designing equipment and infrastructure to be energy efficient, educating users on responsible energy use, recovering energy from waste energy for other purposes.



Gender Equality

Particle physics and accelerator technology-related research are still largely male-dominated and have significant need to improve the equal representation of women and men.

The FCC study is an international endeavour, fostering cross-disciplinary research in many knowledge domains. Such a set-up provides an ideal opportunity to strengthen women's representation in the global science landscape within the next decades.

The FCC collaboration is committed to work towards equal representation of women and men at all levels and in all disciplines covered by the study.


Press Material



FCC Week 2017 - Overview

FCC Study Summary

Web version
Plain text version

Brochures

Future Circular Collider Study
EuroCirCol

FCC Infographic

Web version

FCC in Numbers

Web version

FCC Quick Q&A Guide

Web version
Plain text version

Who is Who

Web version
Plain text version

FCC - websites:

FCC Study public website
CERN website

For Scientists:

fcc.web.cern.ch/Pages/Publications.aspx

Join the FCC Collaboration

http://cern.ch/join-fcc


Contact Details


E-mail address: fcc.office@cern.ch
Postal address:
FCC Office
Mailbox: M22100
CERN - CH1211 - Geneva 23- Switzerland
Telephone: +41 22 767 4058
Telephone: +41 22 767 4058
Fax: +41 22 766 9731